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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Scale‐up of electrospinning technology: Applications in the pharmaceutical industry

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Abstract Recently, electrospinning (ES) of fibers has been shown to be an attractive strategy for drug delivery. One of the main features of ES is that a wide variety of drugs can be loaded into the fibers to improve their bioavailability, to enhance dissolution, or to achieve controlled release. Besides, ES is a continuous technology with low energy consumption, which can make it a very economic production alternative to the widely used freeze drying and spray drying. However, the low production rate of laboratory‐scaled ES has limited the industrial application of the technology so far. This article covers the various ES technologies developed for scaled‐up fiber production with an emphasis on pharmaceutically relevant examples. The methods used for increasing the productivity are complied, which is followed by a review of specific examples from literature where these technologies are utilized to produce oral drug delivery systems. The different technologies are compared in terms of their basic principles, advantages, and limitations. Finally, the different downstream processing options to prepare tablets or capsules containing the electrospun drug are covered as well. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Equipment for collecting fibers: (a) a 3D image showing the whole equipment, (b) an image showing the equipment during the collection of PVPVA64 fibers with the doctor blade removing it (Szabó et al., )
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Needle setup and product of coaxial, triaxial, and Janus ES. ES, electrospinning
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Comparison of Taylor‐cone formation using direct current electrospinning and alternating current electrospinning (Pokorny et al., )
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Moving free surface electrospinning methods, (a) magnetic fluid; (b) bubble; (c) ball; (d) rotary disk; (e) cylinder; (f) beaded‐chain; (g) rotary wire; (h) spiral coil; (i) corona; (j) free surface high‐speed
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Stationary free surface electrospinning methods, (a) wire; (b) conical wire; (c) bowl; (d) plate edge; (e) curved slot; (f) slit; (g) stepped pyramid
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Nozzle‐type electrospinning spinnerets, (a) linear multi‐needle; (b) two‐dimensional multi‐needle; (c) porous tube; (d) flat; (e) electroblowing; (f) nozzle‐based high‐speed
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Schematic drawing of single‐needle electrospinning (SNES)
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Schematic drawing and photo of a nozzle‐based high‐speed ES machine equipped with cyclone collecting the produced fibers (Vass et al., ). ES, electrospinning
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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies

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