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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Impact of the protein corona on nanomaterial immune response and targeting ability

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Abstract Over the last decade nanomaterials have had a major impact on human health for the early detection and treatment of many diseases. The future success of clinically translatable nanomaterials lies in the combination of several functionalities to realize a personalized medical experience for patients. To maintain promises, concerns arising from toxic potential and off‐target accumulation of nanomaterials must be addressed first. Upon introduction to a complex biological system (e.g., following systemic administration), nanomaterials interact with all the encountered biomolecules and form the protein corona, a complex coating of plasma proteins that provides them with a totally new biological identity. As the protein corona controls the nanomaterial behavior in vivo, a precise knowledge of the relationship between biological identity and physiological response is needed but not yet achieved. Based on impressive progress made thus far, this review critically discusses how the protein corona activates immune response and influences the targeted delivery of nanomaterials. Furthermore, we comment on emerging strategies to manipulate protein binding in order to promote formation of designer artificial coronas and achieve a desired therapeutic outcome. We conclude by debating challenges that must be overcome to obtain widespread clinical adoption of nanomaterials. This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Cells at the Nanoscale Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies

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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Cells at the Nanoscale

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