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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Image‐guided tumor surgery: The emerging role of nanotechnology

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Abstract Surgical resection is a mainstay treatment for solid tumors. Yet, methods to distinguish malignant from healthy tissue are primarily limited to tactile and visual cues as well as the surgeon's experience. As a result, there is a possibility that a positive surgical margin (PSM) or the presence of residual tumor left behind after resection may occur. It is well‐documented that PSMs can negatively impact treatment outcomes and survival, as well as pose an economic burden. Therefore, surgical tumor imaging techniques have emerged as a promising method to decrease PSM rates. Nanoparticles (NPs) have unique characteristics to serve as optical contrast agents during image‐guided surgery (IGS). Recently, there has been tremendous growth in the volume and types of NPs used for IGS, including clinical trials. Herein, we describe the most recent contributions of nanotechnology for surgical tumor identification. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanoscale Tools and Techniques in Surgery Diagnostic Tools > in vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging
Optical imaging modalities used for IGS with examples of surgical tumor detection from the literature: fluorescence (Reprinted with permission from Zhao et al., . Copyright 2016 Springer Nature), photoacoustic (Reprinted with permission from Thawani et al., . Copyright 2017 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), Raman spectroscopy (Reprinted with permission from Mohs et al., . Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society), theranostics (Reprinted with permission from Li et al., . Copyright 2018 Ivy Spring International Publisher), and multimodal imaging (Reprinted with permission from Jin, Li, Yang, & Tian, . Copyright 2019 Acta Materialia Inc. published by Elsevier Ltd.)
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Nanoparticles currently undergoing clinical investigation
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Types of nanoparticles used for surgical image guidance
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Emission profiles of commonly used dyes and NPs for surgical tumor detection and the emission wavelengths of NPs covered in this review. The majority of dyes fall into the NIR range. Fluorophores in the green text indicate FDA‐approved compounds. Red text indicates the typical excitation wavelength for SERS NPs. The excitation and emission wavelength (nm) are reported in parenthesis after each dye
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Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging
Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanoscale Tools and Techniques in Surgery
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease

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