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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Advances and perspectives in near‐infrared fluorescent organic probes for surgical oncology

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Abstract Surgical resection of solid tumors is currently the most efficient and preferred therapeutic strategy for treating cancer. Despite significant medical, technical, and scientific advances, the complete treatment of this lethal disease is still a challenging task. New imaging techniques and contrast agents are urgently needed to improve cytoreductive surgery and patient outcomes. Tumor‐targeted probes are valuable for guiding a surgical resection of tumor from subjective judgments to visual inspection. Near‐infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging is a promising technology in preclinical and clinical tumor diagnosis and therapy. The rapid development in NIR fluorophores with improved optical properties, targeting strategies, and imaging devices has brought about prospective study of novel NIR nanomaterials for intraoperative tumor detection. In this review, we summarize the recent development in NIR‐emitting organic fluorophores and cancer‐targeting strategies that specifically target and accumulate in tumors for the molecular imaging of cancerous cells. We believe this technique utilizing new fluorescent probes with an intraoperative optical imaging capacity could provide a more sensitive and accurate method for cancer resection guidance, thereby resulting in better surgical outcomes. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > in vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Schematic showing the typical example of structural motifs of NIR fluorescent organic dyes and their modification strategies with various tumor‐targeted groups for imaging‐guided surgical oncology. NIR, near‐infrared
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Schematic of preparation and characterization of AIE NPs (a), and illustration of the application of AIE NPs in accurate tumor identification (b) and image‐guided tumor resection (c, d). (Reprinted with permission from J. Liu et al. (2017). Copyright 2017 Royal Society of Chemistry). AIE NPs, aggregation‐induced emission nanoparticles
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(a) Structures of porphyrins and PEG diamine. (b) Schematic illustration of porphyrin cross‐linked hydrogels. (c–e) Long‐term monitoring and image‐guided surgical resection by the porphyrin‐cross‐linked hydrogel. (Reprinted with permission from Lovell et al. (2011). Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society)
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(a) Schematic illustrating the synthesis of SiR‐LDFC‐trastuzumab. (b) Fluorescence image of SKOV‐3 tumor‐bearing mouse before tumor resection (left), with skin removed (middle), and after tumor resection (right). (c) Imaging of organs resected from SKOV‐3 tumor‐bearing mouse under white light (top) and exposed to 620 nm laser (bottom). (Reprinted with permission from X. Wu et al. (2015). Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society)
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Schematic illustration of the tissue‐specific NIR fluorescent compounds have a correlation between physicochemical properties and biodistribution in major organs. These NIR tissue contrast agents display great potential for intraoperative NIR imaging in real‐time. (Reprinted with permission from Owens et al. (2016). Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society). NIR, near‐infrared
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Schematic illustrated the preparation of aptamer‐decorated AIE‐dots by one‐pot self‐assembly method. (Reprinted with permission from P. F. Zhang et al. (2017). Copyright 2017 American Chemical Society). AIE, aggregation‐induced emission
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Schematic preparation of t‐BuPITBT‐TPE‐C225 NPs for targeted imaging of cancer cells with an overexpressed EGFR. (Reprinted with permission from Gao et al. (2016). Copyright 2016 Royal Society of Chemistry). EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor
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Scheme illustrating the assembly structure of NET‐targeted UCNP‐based nanoparticles and the utilization for NIR‐controlled imaging‐guided cancer treatment. (Reprinted with permission from G. Chen et al. (2017). Copyright 2017 Wiley‐VCH). NET, neuroendocrine tumor; UCNP, upconversion nanoparticle; NIR, near‐infrared
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Schematic illustration of the general fabrication procedures of HyNPs for tumor targeting imaging and PDT in vivo. (Reprinted with permission from Shen et al. (2017). Copyright 2017 Elsevier). PDT, photodynamic therapy
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Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging

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