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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanotechnology's application in Type 1 diabetes

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Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by the immune system attacking islet cells. T1D, with a long prediabetes period, and the incidence of T1D increases with age during childhood and peaks at 10–14 years. And once it gets overt, it requires lifelong insulin replace treatment. Therefore, the diagnosis of early‐stage T1D and effective treatments are important for the management of T1D patients. The imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and so on, were applied in diagnosis of the early stage T1D and its development tracking. The addition of nanomaterials, especially in MRI, can improve the quality of T1D imaging for the diagnosis of T1D at early stage and cause less harm to human body. Meantime, among various treatment options, islet transplantation and immunotherapy are promising, effective, and less independent on insulin. The addition of nanotechnology can effectively reduce the attack of the immune system on drugs and cells, making the therapeutic drug more targeted in the body and prolonging the action time between drugs and cells, thus its addition makes these therapy safer and more efficient. In this review, we attempt to summarize the recent advances in the development of nanotechnology advances of T1D including using nanomaterials for the diagnosis and immunological imaging of T1D, protecting the transplanted islet cells from immune system attack, and delivering relevant molecules to targeted immunocytes. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > in vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement
AuNP‐peptide complexes inject into skin through Microneedles (Reprinted with permission from Dul et al. (2019). Copyright 2019 Elsevier)
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USPIO NPs loaded with biomolecules. The NPs were surface passivated with phosphonate polyethylene glycol (PEG)‐COOH. ITE was trapped by the hydrophobic interactions between PEG chains. And fusion protein (proinsulin; Ub: Ubiquitin: streptococcal protein G) covalently linked with NPs via peptide bond (Reprinted with permission from Dubreil et al. (2018). Copyright 2018 John Wiley and Sons)
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Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance and Therapeutics in T1D (Reprinted with permission from Warshauer, Bluestone, & Anderson (2019). Copyright 2019 Elsevier)
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The natural history of T1D: a 25‐year‐old concept revisited. Additions and conjectures based on recent knowledge gains are shown in purple (Reprinted with permission from Atkinson et al. (2014). Copyright 2014 Elsevier)
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Map of age‐sex standardized incidence rates (per 100,000) from publications of T1D in children aged under 15 years (Reprinted with permission from Patterson et al. (2019). Copyright 2019 Elsevier)
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Xenotransplantation of layer‐by‐layer encapsulated nonhuman primate islets with a specified immunosuppressive drug protocol (Reprinted with permission from Muhammad R. Haque et al. (2017). Copyright 2017 Elsevier)
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Assembly of PEG‐rich, nanothin conformal islet coatings via layer‐by‐layer deposition of PPB and SA (Reprinted with permission from Wilson et al. (2008). Copyright 2008 American Chemical Society)
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Synthesis the RBCm‐Ace‐DEX NPs. Ethoxy acetal‐derivatized dextran nanoparticles (Ace‐DEX NPs) were constructed as “inner core” loaded with insulin, glucose oxidase (GOx) and catalase (CAT), and red blood cell membrane (RBCm)‐derived coating was adopted as “outer shell” (Reprinted with permission from Fu et al. (2018). Copyright 2018 John Wiley and Sons)
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pMHC‐NP working mechanism in vivo (Reprinted with permission from Tsai et al. (2010). Copyright 2010 Elsevier)
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Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging

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