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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanomedicine in lung cancer: Current states of overcoming drug resistance and improving cancer immunotherapy

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Abstract Lung cancer is considered to cause the most cancer‐related deaths worldwide. Due to the deficiency in early‐stage diagnostics and local invasion or distant metastasis, the first line of treatment for most patients unsuitable for surgery is chemotherapy, targeted therapy or immunotherapy. Nanocarriers with the function of improving drug solubility, in vivo stability, drug distribution in the body, and sustained and targeted delivery, can effectively improve the effect of drug treatment and reduce toxic and side effects, and have been used in clinical treatment for lung cancer and many types of cancers. Here, we review nanoparticle (NP) formulation for lung cancer treatment including liposomes, polymers, and inorganic NPs via systemic and inhaled administration, and highlight the works of overcoming drug resistance and improving cancer immunotherapy. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease
DC‐targeting liposomal RNA as cancer nanovaccine. (a) Liposomal RNA of negative net charge deliver RNA‐encoded antigens body‐wide to lymphoid‐resident DCs. (b) Liposomal RNA vaccines induce IFNα production and activation of APCs and effector cells. (c) Mechanism of action for the Liposomal RNA vaccines. (d) Liposomal RNA vaccines mediate rejection of advanced s.c. TC‐1‐Luc tumors in C57BL/6 mice (Reprinted with permission from Kranz et al. (2016). Copyright 2016 Springer Nature)
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The composite polyphosphazene vesicle system loaded with miR‐200c through physical encapsulation and electrostatic interaction showed tumor inhibition and high miR‐200c level in paclitaxel resistance human lung cancer (A549/T) cells xenografts model in nude mice (Reprinted with permission from Peng, Zhu, and Qiu (2016). Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V.)
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Antitumor efficiency and repolarization of TAM by simvastatin /gefitinib combination liposome in vivo. (a,b) The tumor growth curve and the dissected tumor tissues at the endpoint. (c) Immunofluorescence staining (red) of the M1Φ marker iNOS. (d) Immunofluorescence staining (green) of the M2Φ marker CD206 (Reprinted with permission from Yin et al. (2018). Copyright 2018 John Wiley & Sons)
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Nanocomposites composed of HAS, aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) and phospholipid co‐loaded with etoposide and berberine (BER) for inhaled administration of lung cancer (Reprinted with permission from Elgohary et al. (2018). Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V.)
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Selecting broad‐spectrum lung cancer‐binding peptides by phage display biopanning of H460 LCC cells and functionalizing NPs with the targeting peptides. (a) Verification of the tumor homing ability of H460‐targeting phage in vivo. (b) Optical imaging of whole body and dissected organs as compared to those from the control phage group at 24 hr post‐injection. (c) Visualization of the detailed tumor distribution of targeted SPIONs by T2 color mapping and histological analyses. (d) Histological analyses of H460 tumor tissue specimens. (e) Quantification of Prussian blue reaction products from the representative tumor sections (Reprinted with permission from Chi et al. (2017). Copyright 2017 Ivyspring International Publisher)
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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease

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