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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Energy‐converting biomaterials for cancer therapy: Category, efficiency, and biosafety

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Abstract Energy‐converting biomaterials (ECBs)‐mediated cancer‐therapeutic modalities have been extensively explored, which have achieved remarkable benefits to overwhelm the obstacles of traditional cancer‐treatment modalities. Energy‐driven cancer‐therapeutic modalities feature their distinctive merits, including noninvasiveness, low mammalian toxicity, adequate therapeutic outcome, and optimistical synergistic therapeutics. In this advanced review, the prevailing mainstream ECBs can be divided into two sections: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)‐associated energy‐converting biomaterials (ROS‐ECBs) and hyperthermia‐related energy‐converting biomaterials (H‐ECBs). On the one hand, ROS‐ECBs can transfer exogenous or endogenous energy (such as light, radiation, ultrasound, or chemical) to generate and release highly toxic ROS for inducing tumor cell apoptosis/necrosis, including photo‐driven ROS‐ECBs for photodynamic therapy, radiation‐driven ROS‐ECBs for radiotherapy, ultrasound‐driven ROS‐ECBs for sonodynamic therapy, and chemical‐driven ROS‐ECBs for chemodynamic therapy. On the other hand, H‐ECBs could translate the external energy (such as light and magnetic) into heat for killing tumor cells, including photo‐converted H‐ECBs for photothermal therapy and magnetic‐converted H‐ECBs for magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Additionally, the biosafety issues of ECBs are expounded preliminarily, guaranteeing the ever‐stringent requirements of clinical translation. Finally, we discussed the prospects and facing challenges for constructing the new‐generation ECBs for establishing intriguing energy‐driven cancer‐therapeutic modalities. This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology >Nanoscale Systems in Biology
(a) Schematic illustration of HA‐4‐ATP‐AuNFs‐DOX for imaging and combined therapy in the NIR‐II biowindow (Reprinted with permission from Wang, Guo, et al. (2020), Copyright 2020 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (b) Simulated system energy gap in dimer structure and electric field enhancement distributions of Pt Spiral, porous Pt sphere, and Pt cube at 1,120 nm excitation (Reprinted with permission from Wang, Liu, Wu, et al. (2019), Copyright 2019 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (c) Schematic illustration of the synergetic nanocatalytic/PTT enabled by Cu2‐xS‐PEG NDs (Reprinted with permission from Hu et al. (2019), Copyright 2019 Elsevier Ltd.), (d) NiP PHNPs for chemo−/photothermal therapies in the NIR‐II biowindow (Reprinted with permission from Liu et al. (2019), Copyright 2019 American Chemical Society)
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(a) Schematic illustration of ApPdC micelles for in situ‐amplified generation of free radical in cancer cells (Reprinted with permission from Xuan et al. (2020), Copyright 2019 American Chemical Society), (b) Fabrication and catalytic‐therapeutic schematics of GOD‐Fe3O4@DMSNs (Reprinted with permission from Huo, Wang, Chen, and Shi (2017), Copyright 2017 Nature Publishing Group), (c) The scheme mechanism of Fe3O4@[email protected]‐augmented and photothermal‐enhanced cancer therapeutic (Reprinted with permission from Feng et al. (2019), Copyright 2018 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (d) Schematic illustration of “toxic‐drug‐free” nanocatalytic therapy by biomimetic DMSN‐Au‐Fe3O4‐PEG (Reprinted with permission from Gao et al. (2019), Copyright 2018 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (e) Schematic Illustration of the corresponding synergy of ROS and CuET in enhancing the chemotherapeutic efficacy based on [email protected]/Cu‐HMSNs (Reprinted with permission from Wu, Ding, and Li (2019), Copyright 2019 American Chemical Society), (f) Schematic illustration of the CP for imaging‐guided PTT/PDT‐enhanced CDT (Reprinted with permission from Lin, Qiu, et al. (2019), Copyright 2019 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
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(a) Schematic illustration of the synthetic process of HMONs‐PpIX‐RGD and synergistic chemo‐SDT against HCC tumor xenograft (Reprinted with permission from Li et al. (2018), Copyright 2018 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (b) Schematic illustration of the fabrication and SDT sensitization of the Fe(VI)@HMON‐PpIX‐LA‐PEG (FHPLP) nanosystem for hypoxic osteosarcoma (Reprinted with permission from Fu, Li, Zhu, and Hao (2019), Copyright 2019 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (c) Schematic illustration of ultrafine TiO1 + x NRs for SDT/CDT of cancer (Reprinted with permission from Wang et al. (2020a), Copyright 2020 American Chemical Society), (d) Schematic illustration for the preparation and the anticancer mechanism of HPT‐DOX (Reprinted with permission from Liang et al. (2020), Copyright 2020 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
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(a) Biodistribution of the Au10(SG)10 molecule (Reprinted with permission from Zhang et al. (2014), Copyright 2014 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (b) Schematic illustration of hierarchical multiplexing nanodroplets for multimodal imaging‐guided RT (Reprinted with permission from Jiang et al. (2018), Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society), (c) Schematic illustration of [email protected] bimetallic nanostructure to relieve tumor hypoxia (Reprinted with permission from Yang, Chen, and Shi (2019a), Copyright 2019 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (d) Schematic illustration of X‐ray‐activated synergistic therapy (Reprinted with permission from Ahmad et al. (2019), Copyright 2019 American Chemical Society), (e) Schematic illustration of the X‐ray‐controlled ONOO generation for RT based on RBS‐T‐SCNPs (Reprinted with permission from Du et al. (2018), Copyright 2018 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
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(a) Schematic illustration of the process of PDT based on [email protected]‐Hb biomaterials (Reprinted with permission from Cao et al. (2018), Copyright 2018 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (b) Schematic illustration of oxygen self‐enriched photosensitizers for enhancement PDT (Reprinted with permission from Hu et al. (2019), Copyright 2019 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (c) Schematic illustration of the prepared CAT‐Ce6/F‐PEI‐mediated PDT (Reprinted with permission from Li et al. (2019), Copyright 2019 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (d) Scheme illustration of the HMCP nanoparticles for effective combination therapy (Reprinted with permission from Chen et al. (2016), Copyright 2016 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (e) Schematic illustration of the Mn‐CD assembly as an acidic H2O2‐driven oxygenator to enhance PDT effect (Reprinted with permission from Jia et al. (2018), Copyright 2018 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (f) Schematic illustration of the self‐regulated photodynamic properties of SPNs at physiologically neutral and pathologically acidic conditions (Reprinted with permission from Zhu et al. (2017), Copyright 2017 American Chemical Society), (g) Schematic illustration of the catalytic cascades enhanced synergistic therapy driven by PCNs (Reprinted with permission from Lin, Huang, et al. (2019), Copyright 2019 American Chemical Society)
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Schematic illustration of energy‐converting biomaterials (ECBs) for cancer therapy
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(a) Synthesis and bioapplications of 2D nanomaterials (Reprinted with permission from Liu et al. (2020), Copyright 2020 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (b) Scheme of Ti3C2 nanosheet exfoliation process (Reprinted with permission from Lin, Gao, Dai, Chen, and Shi (2017), Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society), (c) Schematic illustration of biodegradable Nb2C for photo hyperthermia (Reprinted with permission from Lin, Wang, et al. (2017), Copyright 2017 American Chemical Society), (d) Schematic representation of the degradation process of the BPQDs/PLGA NSs (Reprinted with permission from Shao et al. (2016), Copyright 2016 Nature Publishing Group), (e) Schematic illustration of the procedure of nanostructures and combined targeted therapy (Reprinted with permission from Zeng et al. (2018), Copyright 2018 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
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(a) Preparation procedure and photo hyperthermia/photodynamic therapy of targeted RGD‐HBc/ICG VLP (Reprinted with permission from Shan et al. (2018), Copyright 2018 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (b) The mechanism of anti‐tumor immune responses induced by PLGA‐ICG‐R837‐based photo hyperthermia in combination with checkpoint‐blockade (Reprinted with permission from Chen et al. (2016), Copyright 2016 Nature Publishing Group), (c) Schematic illustration of photothermally triggered enzyme activation of PCB1‐Bro (Reprinted with permission from Li, Du, et al. (2018), Copyright 2018 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim), (d) Schematic Figure of highly efficient photo hyperthermia using F8‐PEG NPs (Reprinted with permission from Li, Liu, et al. (2019), Copyright 2019 American Chemical Society), (e) Design and synthesis of SPNI‐II for NIR‐I and NIR‐II induced hyperthermia (Reprinted with permission from Jiang, Li, Xiao, et al. (2018), Copyright 2018 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
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