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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanodiagnostics in leishmaniasis: A new frontiers for early elimination

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Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still a major public health concern in developing countries having the highest outbreak and mortality potential. While the treatment of VL has greatly improved in recent times, the current diagnostic tools are limited for use in the post‐elimination setting. Although conventional serological methods of detection are rapid, they can only differentiate between active disease in strict combination with clinical criteria, and thus are not sufficient enough to diagnose relapse patients. Therefore, there is a dire need for a portable, authentic, and reliable assay that does not require large space, specialized instrument facilities, or highly trained laboratory personnel and can be carried out in primary health care settings. Advances in the nanodiagnostic approaches have led to the expansion of new frontiers in the concerned area. The nanosized particles are blessed with an ability to interact one‐on‐one with the biomolecules because of their unique optical and physicochemical properties and high surface area to volume ratio. Biomolecular detection systems based on nanoparticles (NPs) are cost‐effective, rapid, nongel, non‐PCR, and nonculture based that provide fast, one‐step, and reliable results with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. In this review, we discuss different NPs that are being used for the identification of molecular markers and other biomarkers, such as toxins and antigens associated with leishmaniasis. The most promising diagnostic approaches have been included in the article, and the ability of biomolecular recognition, advantages, and disadvantages have been discussed in detail to showcase the enormous potential of nanodiagnostics in human and veterinary medicine. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing
Limitations of Leishmania diagnostics: Challenges for the detection of Leishmania parasite using the current conventional diagnostics
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Nanodiagnostics in leishmaniasis: Nanoparticles (metallic nanostructures, fluorescent (QDs, dye‐loaded silica, and polystyrene) and superparamagnetic NPs in the combination of probes that are made up of nucleic acid and proteins, help in the adaptive, real‐time bioimaging and identifying with high sensitivity and specificity to detect trace amounts of Leishmania parasite or its biomolecules, which finally serve as nanodiagnostics
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Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease
Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices

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