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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Recent progress in layered double hydroxides as a cancer theranostic nanoplatform

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Abstract Layered double hydroxide (LDH) has been a big challenge in exploring new hybrid materials by intercalating inorganic, organic, or bio molecules into their lamellar lattice, those which often showed dual functions from each other or new mutative properties. Recently, nano‐bio convergence technology becomes one of the most extensively studied research fields in the view point of developing advanced drugs and diagnostic agents to fight against disease and eventually to improve the lives of human beings. Therefore, LDH as one of the nanomaterials have been intensively investigated not only as biocompatible drug delivery vehicle for cancer chemotherapy but also as diagnostic and imaging agents. In the present review, we have attempted to summarize theranostic functions of drug‐LDH hybrid nanoparticles including their synthetic methods, physico‐chemical and biological properties, and their unique mechanism overcoming drug resistance, and targeting properties based on in vitro and finally in vivo results. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices Diagnostic Tools > in vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging
Synthetic routes to lattice engineered two‐dimensional (2D) drug‐layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanohybrids: (a) Coprecipitation, (b) ion exchange, (c) calcination‐reconstruction, and (d) exfoliation reassembly
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Number of publication per annum on the topic of theranostic and layered double hydroxide(s). (Source: Web of Science)
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Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanohybrids with theranostic functions
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Schematic illustration of folic acid (FA) grafting reactions; (a) APS coupling and (b) FA conjugation reactions. (c) Cellular methotrexate (MTX) levels in MTX‐LDH and MTX‐LDH‐FA‐treated KB cell lines.(Reprinted with permission from Oh, Choi, Lee, Han, and Choy (2009). Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). (d) Strategy for constructing peptide‐conjugated nanoparticles and MALDI‐TOF detection of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecular weight after activation and peptide conjugation.(Reprinted with permission from Zuo, Chen, Cooper, and Xu (2017). Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society)
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(a) Comparative growth inhibition profile of layered double hydroxide (LDH), the intact drug (Methotrexate, MTX), and the drug‐LDH (MTX‐LDH) nanohybrid in wild‐type HOS and HOS/Mtx cell lines. (b) Mechanism of action of the drug‐LDH (MTX‐LDH) nanohybrid for bypassing drug resistance.(Reprinted with permission from S. J. Choi, Choi, et al. (2010). Copyright 2010, Royal Society of Chemistry)
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Intercellular uptake mechanism of the drug‐layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanohybrids: (a) Schematic illustration of the clathrin‐mediated endocytosis, and (b) confocal microscopy, which involves the colocalization of fluorescein 5′‐isothiocyanate (FITC)‐LDH and clathrin in MNNG/HOS cells (including the localization of (a) the nucleus, (b) clathrin, and (c) FITC‐LDH); panel (d) shows the merged image in MNNG/HOS cells. Cells were incubated with FITC‐LDH for 2 hr, treated with clathrin antibodies, and stained by Texas Red and 4',6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole. Scale bar = 10 μm.(Reprinted with permission from Oh, Choi, Kim, and Choy (2006). Copyright 2006, American Chemical Society)
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Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging
Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices

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