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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
Impact Factor: 9.182

Nanobiotechnology‐enabled energy utilization elevation for augmenting minimally‐invasive and noninvasive oncology thermal ablation

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Abstract Depending on the local or targeted treatment, independence on tumor type and minimally‐invasive and noninvasive feature, various thermal ablation technologies have been established, but they still suffer from the intractable paradox between safety and efficacy. It has been extensively accepted that improving energy utilization efficiency is the primary means of decreasing thermal ablation power and shortening ablation time, which is beneficial for concurrently improving both treatment safety and treatment efficiency. Recent efforts have been made to receive a significant advance in various thermal methods including non‐invasive high‐intensity focused ultrasound, minimally‐invasive radiofrequency and microwave, and non‐invasive and minimally‐invasive photothermal ablation, and so on. Especially, various nanobiotechnologies and design methodologies were employed to elevate the energy utilization efficiency for acquiring unexpected ablation outcomes accompanied with tremendously reduced power and time. More significantly, some combined technologies, for example, chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), gaseous therapy, sonodynamic therapy (SDT), immunotherapy, chemodynamic therapy (CDT), or catalytic nanomedicine, were used to assist these ablation means to repress or completely remove tumors. We discussed and summarized the ablation principles and energy transformation pathways of the four ablation means, and reviewed and commented the progress in this field including newly developed technology or new material types with a highlight on nanobiotechnology‐inspired design principles, and provided the deep insights into the existing problems and development direction. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Schematic diagram of energy transformation pathway
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Different design principles for nanobiotechnology‐enabled PTA. (a) Schematic diagram of light‐enhanced tumor‐catalyzed therapy based on [email protected]3O4 nanoenzymes. (Reprinted with permission from Li et al. Copyright 2019. Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). (b) Schematic illustration of the preparation and therapeutic functions of [email protected]–Ce6&TPP NSs. (Reprinted with permission from Yang et al. Creative Commons Attribution License are available from https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). (c) Synthetic process and therapeutic mechanism of BSA‐IrO2 NPs. (Reprinted with permission from Zhen et al. Copyright 2018 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). (d) Schematic illustration of PTX‐PLGA/Mel‐PFP nanoparticles and their application to NIR‐responsive drug release and PA/US imaging to guide combined photothermal‐chemotherapy for tumor ablation. (Reprinted with permission from Wang et al. Copyright 2019. Royal Society of Chemistry)
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Different design principles for magnifying MWA based on nanobiotechnology. (a) Schematics of ILs/PDA synthesis and its principle for the combined therapy. (Reprinted with permission from Tan et al. Copyright 2016. American Chemical Society). (b) Schematics of MZCNs synthesis and its function in selectively targeting and disrupting mitochondria under microwave irradiation. (Reprinted with permission from Chen et al. Copyright 2018. Royal Society of Chemistry). (c) (i) Schematic illustration of the combination of microwave thermodynamics and microwave dynamics. (ii) Schematic illustration of the MW‐sensitive effects of Mn‐ZrMOF NCs in salt solutions with hydroxyl radicals generated under MW radiation. (Reprinted with permission from Fu et al. Copyright 2018. American Chemical Society)
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Different design principles for reinforcing RFA based on nanobiotechnology. (a) (i) The synthesis schematic of GF‐NCs from graphite powder, and (ii) the synthesis schematic of GO from graphite powder. (Reprinted with permission from Kumar et al. Copyright 2019. Royal Society of Chemistry). (b) (i) Schematic diagram of IO‐OA NPs synthesis by the thermal decomposition of iron oleate complex at 320°C. (ii) Schematic diagram of GIC synthesis from HAuCl4. (iii) Schematic diagram of IO‐PAA NPs coupled with GIC amines to produce IO‐GIC NPs. (Reprinted with permission from Fazal et al. Copyright 2017. American Chemical Society). (c) The principle schematic of the marriage of DLM‐enhanced inertial cavitation and magneto‐thermal conversion in radiofrequency field using the DLM‐encapsulated HIONs to enhance RFA. (Reprinted with permission from Fang et al. Copyright 2019. American Chemical Society)
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Different design principles for enhancing HIFU ablation based on nanobiotechnology. (a) Schematic illustration of “small‐to‐big” strategy to generate microbubbles from nano‐sized emulsions by the temperature‐induced vaporization mechanism. (Reprinted with permission from Zhou et al. Copyright 2013. WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). (b) Schematic illustration about the inorganic‐supramolecular‐terpolymer ternary hydrogel system (MSN‐[email protected]&DOX). (Reprinted with permission from Wang et al. Copyright 2019. American Chemical Society). (c) Schematic illustration of the microstructure of FLBS‐PFH‐NPs and the phase‐transformation process by heating or ultrasound irradiation, wherein a schematic of HIFU ablation principles was given. (Reprinted with permission from Zhou et al. Copyright 2019. Royal Society of Chemistry). (d) (i) Schematic showing the synthetic route for the preparation of PEGylated nCAT. (ii) The underlying principle using PEGylated nCAT to realize the synergistic therapy including HIFU ablation and hypoxia mitigation and chemotherapy. (Reprinted with permission from Zhu et al. Creative Commons Attribution License are available from https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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Schematic diagram of methods to improve energy conversion efficiency
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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease

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