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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Advancements in release‐active antimicrobial biomaterials: A journey from release to relief

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Abstract Escalating medical expenses due to infectious diseases are causing huge socioeconomic pressure on mankind globally. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has further aggravated this problem. Drug‐resistant pathogens are also capable of forming thick biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces to thrive in a harsh environment. To address these clinical problems, various strategies including antibacterial agent delivering matrices and bactericidal coatings strategies have been developed. In this review, we have discussed various types of polymeric vehicles such as hydrogels, sponges/cryogels, microgels, nanogels, and meshes, which are commonly used to deliver antibiotics, metal nanoparticles, and biocides. Compositions of these polymeric matrices have been elaborately depicted by elucidating their chemical interactions and potential activity have been discussed. On the other hand, various implant/device‐surface coating strategies which exploit the release‐active mechanism of bacterial killing are discussed in elaboration. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Cardiovascular Disease Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease
Antibiotic and biocide loaded biomaterials. (a) (i) Schematic of the vancomycin‐loaded hydrogel. (ii) Release kinetics of the vancomycin from the hydrogel. (iii) Inhibition of the bacterial growth by releasing the antibiotic. (iv) In vivo activity of the hydrogel in MRSA subcutaneous model (reprinted with permission from Hoque et al. (2018), Copyright 2018, American chemical society). (b) (i) Preparation of the aminoglycoside‐based hydrogel by crosslinking with oxidized polysaccharides. (ii) Evaluation of the bactericidal nature of the hydrogel via FESEM. (iii) In vivo activity of the hydrogel in S. aureus subcutaneous infection model (reprinted with permission from He et al. (2017), Copyright 2017, Elsevier). (c) (i) Structure of the small molecular biocide loaded UV‐crosslinked hydrogel. (ii) Release of the biocide. (iii–iv) Antibiofilm efficacy of the hydrogel in in vivo murine model (reprinted with permission from Hoque et al. (2017). Copyright 2017, American chemical society). (a) (i) Schematic diagram of lysostaphin encapsulation within protease‐degradable PEG‐MAL hydrogel and subsequent application to infected femurs. (ii) μCT reconstructions of the fracture callus 5‐week postoperation. (iii) Mechanical strength of femurs as assessed by ex vivo torsion to failure testing. (iv) Lysostaphin‐laden hydrogels clear MRSA infection in femur in in vivo mice model (reprinted with permission from Johnson et al. (2018). Creative commons attribution‐noncommercial‐NoDerivatives license 4.0, Copyright 2018, PNAS)
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(a) Schematic representation of synthesis of polymer–silver nanocomposite. (b) TEM image of polymer–silver nanocomposite. (c) Antibacterial activity of nanocomposite coated glass surface against S. aureus. (d) MIA of nanocomposites against MRSA. (e) In vivo study of nanocomposites coated catheter (reprinted with permission from Hoque et al. (2019). Copyright 2019, American Chemical Society)
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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease
Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Cardiovascular Disease

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