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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanoparticle platforms for dermal antiaging technologies: Insights in cellular and molecular mechanisms

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Abstract Aging is a continuous process defined by a progressive functional decline in physiological parameters. Skin, being one of the most vulnerable organs, shows early signs of aging which are predominantly affected by intrinsic factors like hormone, gender, mood, enzymes, and genetic predisposition, and extrinsic factors like exposure to radiation, air pollution, and heat. Visible morphological and anatomical changes associated with skin aging occur due to underlying physiological aberrations governed by numerous complex interactions at cellular and subcellular levels. Nanoparticles are perceived as a powerful tool in the cosmeceutical industry both for augmenting the efficacy of existing agents and as a novel standalone therapy. Both organic and inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively investigated in antiaging applications. The use of nanoparticles helps to enhance the activity of antiaging molecules by selectively targeting cellular and molecular pathways. On the other hand, the nanoparticle platforms also gained increasing popularity as the skin protectant against extrinsic factors such as UV radiation and pollutants. This review comprehensively discusses skin aging and its mechanism by highlighting the impact on cellular, subcellular, and epigenetic elements. Importantly, the review elaborates on the examples of organic and inorganic nanoparticle‐based formulations developed for antiaging application and provides mechanistic insights on how they modulate the mechanisms of skin aging. The clinical progress of nanoparticle antiaging technologies and factors that impact clinical translation are also explored. This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Subcellular pathways targeted by nanoparticles and shows the effect of aging on molecular pathways and changes in associated effects. Red cross shows pathways blocked by nanoparticles and green plus shows pathways promoted by nanoparticles to achieve antiaging effects
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Interplay between skin cells. Cross‐talk between fibroblast, keratinocyte, and melanocyte and cell signaling pathways affected during aging. Effects due to modulated signaling pathways are shown in blue. Red arrows indicate the interplay between cells. Black arrows indicate the modulated pathways of a particular cell type
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Normal skin versus aged skin. Showing characteristics of aged skin that develop in response to multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors
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Biomarker expression in photoaged cells at gene and protein levels. Relative mRNA expression of (a) IL‐6, (b) IL‐8, and (c) MMP‐2 compared with untreated cells. Concentrations of (d) IL‐6 and (e) IL‐8 in culture supernatants collected after exposure were examined using ELISA kits. (f) Protein expression of MMP‐2 after exposure to CeO2 NP or UVA radiation was determined by Western blotting. (g) Western blotting of proteins to show the photoaging mechanism. Human skin fibroblasts were pretreated with (or without) CeO2 NP (25, 50, or 100 μg/ml), and irradiated (or not) by UVA. This information was reprinted with permission from Li et al. (2019), under CC license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
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Nanoparticles as skin protectants. Various organic and inorganic nanoparticles are used in topical formulations and form a barrier for extrinsic stimulants to protect skin from UV or pollution induced early for peer review aging
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Different routes of entry into skin and dermal penetrations of nanoparticles. Upper image: Pathways used by nanoparticles and drugs to reach deep skin layers. Follicular pathways: through hair follicles; Eccrine: through sweat glands; Intracellular: through cells; Intercellular: through intracellular spaces. Lower image: Physiochemical properties of nanoparticles like size, shape, charge, and composition affect its permeation across the epidermal and dermal layer of skin
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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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