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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Recent advances and applications of microspheres and nanoparticles in transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

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Abstract Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a recommended treatment for patients suffering from intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As compared to the conventional TACE, drug‐eluting bead TACE demonstrates several advantages in terms of survival, treatment response, and adverse effects. The selection of embolic agents is critical to the success of TACE. Many studies have been performed on the modification of the structure, size, homogeneity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability of embolic agents. Continuing efforts are focused on efficient loading of versatile chemotherapeutics, controlled sizes for sufficient occlusion, real‐time detection intra‐ and post‐procedure, and multimodality imaging‐guided precise treatment. Here, we summarize recent advances and applications of microspheres and nanoparticles in TACE for HCC. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease
Schematic illustration of the principle of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Reproduced with permission from Chen et al. (2019). Copyright 2019. Frontiers
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Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of air‐dried paclitaxel solution (scale bar: 2 μm, ×8000) (a), PTX astral structure (scale bar: 20 μm, ×700) (b), filaments of PTX astral structure (scale bar: 10 μm, ×2500) (c), bright field image of PTX astral structure (scale bar: 80 μm) (d), fluorescence confocal images of PTX astral structure in blue channel (e), green channel (f), red channel (g), merged image (scale bar: 40 μm) (h). Reprinted with permission from Dev et al. (2020). Copyright 2019. Elsevier
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Biodegradable multifunctional porous microspheres (BMPMs) ingredients, structure, and working mechanism of imageable TACE. Reprinted with permission from Liu et al. (2020). Copyright 2019. Elsevier
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Morphology of SA‐modified SF microspheres. Dry (a) and wet (b) SA‐modified microspheres under an optical microscope. The micrographs of the external surface of the SA‐modified SF microspheres are presented in (c) scale bar: 100 μm, (d) scale bar: 50 μm, (e) scale bar: 20 μm, and (f) scale bar: 10 μm. Reprinted with permission from Chen et al. (2020). Copyright 2019. Elsevier
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(a) In vitro degradation test of fabricated MS. DOX microspheres and DOX/HACE microspheres were incubated in phosphate‐buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 14 days. The morphology of microspheres was observed by SEM (scale bar = 20 μm). Inset with the yellow boundary indicates the magnified image (scale bar = 2 μm). (b) In vivo anticancer activities in the McA‐RH7777 tumor‐implanted rat model. Serial MR images of liver tumors in control (sham operation), DOX microspheres, and DOX/HACE microspheres groups on day 0 (pre‐treatment status), 3, and 7 after intra‐arterial administration. White arrowheads in MR images indicate liver tumors. The length of the scale bar on the left side is 1 cm. Figures combined and reproduced with permission from Lee et al. (2018). Copyright 2018. Taylor & Francis
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