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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
Impact Factor: 9.182

Gold nanoparticles in virus detection: Recent advances and potential considerations for SARS‐CoV‐2 testing development

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Abstract Viruses are infectious agents that pose significant threats to plants, animals, and humans. The current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), has spread globally and resulted in over 2 million deaths and immeasurable financial losses. Rapid and sensitive virus diagnostics become crucially important in controlling the spread of a pandemic before effective treatment and vaccines are available. Gold nanoparticle (AuNP)‐based testing holds great potential for this urgent unmet biomedical need. In this review, we describe the most recent advances in AuNP‐based viral detection applications. In addition, we discuss considerations for the design of AuNP‐based SARS‐CoV‐2 testings. Finally, we highlight and propose important parameters to consider for the future development of effective AuNP‐based testings that would be critical for not only this COVID‐19 pandemic, but also potential future outbreaks. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle‐Based Sensing
The number of PubMed records for terms “gold nanoparticle detection” and “gold nanoparticle virus detection” from 2001 to 2020
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Schematic representation for the selective naked‐eye detection of SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA mediated by the suitably designed ASO‐capped AuNPs. Reprinted with permission from Moitra et al. (2020). American Chemical Society
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Schematic illustration of rapid SARS‐CoV‐2 IgM‐IgG combined antibody test. (a) Schematic diagram of the detection device. (b) An illustration of different testing results, C: control line; G: IgG line; M: IgM line. Reprinted with permission from Li et al. (2020). John Wiley & Sons, Inc
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Steps of the developed label‐free in situ isothermal RPA amplification/detection biosensor on primer‐modified SPCE‐AuNP electrodes employing impedance for the determination of CTV‐related nucleic acid. Reprinted with permission from Khater and Escosura‐Muniz (2019). American Chemical Society
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The scheme of RT‐RPA‐LFA proposed for PVX detection. Reprinted with permission from Ivanov et al. (2020). Elsevier B.V
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(a) Schematic illustration of the configuration and (b) the measurement principle of the SERS‐based lateral flow assay for quantification of HIV‐1 DNA (C is the control line and T is the test line). Reprinted with permission from Fu et al. (2016). Elsevier B.V
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Smartphone lateral flow point‐of‐care test for Ebola virus IgG detection. (a) Lateral flow strip illustration: serum applied onto the sample pad migrates through the analytical area, and subsequently forms complexes between the labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the target analytes. Specifically targeted IgG serum antibodies against single or multiple recombinant Ebola viral proteins then bind to preprinted test lines, forming a visual red‐purple line. A control line is used to validate the assay function for the detection of antihuman antibody‐gold nanoparticle conjugates. Assay results appear after 15 min. (b) Illustration of the smartphone application (app) interface login window to record patient details; following submission, the analysis window opens; once the red box is aligned between the test and control lines, a tap on the screen provides the strips' analysis; result analysis window, which presents the relative intensity of the test line and determines whether the result is positive or negative based on an evaluated cutoff threshold. The window also provides a summary of patient details and a description of the test taken. Reprinted with permission from Brangel et al. (2018). American Chemical Society
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Design of the nanostructured microdevice and the portable smartphone‐enabled virus detection system. (a) Photo of the microfluidic device. (b) Schematic of the sandwich virus detection assay in the device. (c) Setup of the optical system. (d) Design of the smartphone imaging system. Reprinted with permission from Xia et al. (2019). American Chemical Society
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Microfluidic electrochemical aptasensor for norovirus detection: (a) structure of PDMS microfluidic chip showing microfilters, sensing zone, and integrated screen‐printed carbon electrode (SPCE). (b) Sequence of electrode functionalization and aptasensing of norovirus. Bt‐Atp‐Fc, biotin and ferrocene tagged aptamer; Grp‐AuNPs, graphene‐gold nanoparticles composite; Strp‐SH, thiolated streptavidin. Reprinted with permission from Chand and Neethirajan (2017). Elsevier B.V
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Schemata of the fabrication process of the sandwich‐type electrochemical immunosensor. (a) Reprinted with permission from Alizadeh et al. (2017). Elsevier B.V. (b) Reprinted with permission from Pei et al. (2019). Elsevier B.V
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Schematic representation of the detection principle for the influenza virus using the LSPR‐induced fluorescence nanobiosensor. Reprinted with permission from Takemura et al. (2017). Elsevier B.V
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Schematic illustration of (a) Zika‐mAb‐SERS nanoprobe assembly: Au‐SHIN (∼100 nm Au core + 4 nm silica shell thickness); Au‐SHIN + NB Raman reporter layer; Au‐SHIN + NB Raman reporter layer + final ∼10 nm silica shell (SERS nanoprobe); conjugation onto Zika NS1 monoclonal antibodies (Zika‐mAb). (b) SERS immunoassay platform for detecting different concentrations of Zika NS1. The platform is irradiated with a 633 nm laser line and the SERRS signal from NB molecules, located in close proximity to gold nanoparticles (∼4 nm), is recorded by area mapping. Brighter spots indicate the higher intensity of the NB band at 593 cm−1. Reprinted with permission from Camacho et al. (2018). American Chemical Society
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Schematic image of the fabricated AIV detection biosensor based on the LSPR method. Reprinted with permission from Lee et al. (2019). Elsevier B.V
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Schematic diagram for the preparation of CdZnSeS/ZnSeS QD‐peptide‐AuNP nanocomposite and its detecting mechanism towards the influenza virus. AuNPs and QDs are conjugated by peptide linkers in this current work. Reprinted with permission from Nasrin et al. (2020). Elsevier B.V
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(a) (i) Comparison of the homogeneous and heterogeneous assays for Ebola virus oligo detection; (ii) UC emission spectra of BaGdF5:Yb/Er‐probe UCNPs with various concentrations of Ebola virus oligo target in the homogeneous assay; (iii) UC emission spectra of BaGdF5:Yb/Er‐probe UCNPs with various concentration of Ebola virus oligo target in the heterogeneous assay with NAAO membrane. (b) Schematic diagram of Ebola target oligo detection based on LRET biosensor with energy transfer from UCNPs to AuNPs on NAAO membrane. Reprinted with permission from Tsang et al. (2016). American Chemical Society
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Schematic illustration of AuNP‐based virus detection approaches discussed in this article
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Lateral flow test amplified by Au‐SA for nucleic acid detection. (a) Schematic representation of the configuration of the test strip. (b) Schematic illustration of the detection of nucleic acid using Au‐SA enhanced lateral flow assay. (c) Network structure on test line in the presence of targHBV. (d) Interpretation of positive and negative results. Reprinted with permission from Gao et al. (2017). Elsevier B.V
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Schematic diagram for paper chip‐based detection of IPNV. (a) Ni‐NTA‐nanogold (5 nm) and anti‐DIPNV antibodies bind to the surface of the recombinant hAFN‐H to form the Au‐hAFN‐H nanoprobes. (b) Immobilization of IPNV‐bound and unbound Au‐hAFN‐H nanoprobes at the T‐ and C‐zones, respectively, on the paper chip. Representative images of actual paper chips used for IPNV detection, using (c) a commercially available company chip and (d) Au‐hAFN‐H nanoprobes. Reprinted with permission from Chayan et al. (2019). American Chemical Society
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Schematic of LFIA formats. (a) Sandwich format. (b) Competitive format
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