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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanoparticles for photoacoustic imaging

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Abstract Nanoparticles have been designed and applied as contrast enhancers in various optical imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging, and optical reflectance microscopy. As an emerging hybrid imaging modality, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has also benefited from the application of these nanoparticle‐based contrast agents. We review this rapidly growing field and describe the applications of nanoparticles in PAI. Particular focus is given to nanoparticles whose absorption mechanism is based on surface plasmon resonance, including gold nanoshells, nanorods, and nanocages. Dye‐embedded nanoparticles are also reviewed. Specifically, the design and application of each nanoparticle‐based contrast agent in relation to the field of PAI are detailed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging

SEM image of ICG PEBBLE (a) and optical absorption of ICG PEBBLEs and ICG free dye at different concentrations (b). Comparison yields a mean loading of 23000 ICG molecules per nanoparticles (Reproduced with permission from Ref 42. Copyright 2007 SPIE).

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Electron microphotographs of SK‐BR‐3 cells incubated with Mab/NP. (a) SEM showing two NP (arrowheads) directly on the cell surface. mv ‐ microvilli. (b) TEM of an ultrathin section. NP adherent to the cell surface (arrowhead) and to the surface of microvilli (thin arrows) or in the process of internalization (thick arrows) into vesicles; (c) TEM of an ultrathin section. NP internalized in a cytoplasmic vesicle (open arrow). Scale bars 0.5 micrometers. (Courtesy of Dr. Oraevsky) (Reprinted with permission from Ref 27. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Limited).

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Targeted gold nanoparticles binding to cell membrane. Scale bar: 200 nm (Courtesy of Dr. Li), (Reproduced with permission from Ref 52. Copyright 2006 SPIE).

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A typical optoacoustic image of a nude mouse before (a) and after (b) subcutaneous injection of 100 µL of Au‐NRs at a concentration of 7.5 × 1010 NRs per mL in the abdominal area. Injected nanoparticles were brightly visible in the optoacoustic image (b).Drawing in (a) depicts the approximate position of the nude mouse during experiment. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 48. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society).

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Darkfield, ultrasound and optoacoustic images (λ = 532 nm and 680 nm) of control, targeted and non‐targeted tissue phantoms. The darkfield images measure 440 µm by 340 µm field of view. The ultrasound and optoacoustic images measure 2 mm by 1.67 mm. (Courtesy of Dr. Emelianov) (Reproduced with permission from Ref 47. Copyright 2007 Optical Society of America).

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(a) Noninvasive in vivo photoacoustic image of rat cortical vasculature acquired using 800 nm irradiation before administration of nanoshells as a NIR contrast agent. MF: median fissure. (b) Photoacoustic image acquired ∼20 min post‐injection of the third dose of nanoshells. (c) Difference image obtained by subtracting pre‐ and post‐injection images (i.e. Image C = Image B—Image A). (d) Mean optical absorption of cortical vasculature normalized to the mean optical absorption prior to nanoshells administration. (Reproduced with permission from Ref 9. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society).

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(Comparison of the optical spectra calculated using DDA for gold nanorods, nanoshells, and nanocages. For all the structures, the SPR peak was tuned to exactly 800 nm. (a) The gold nanorod has a width of w = 20 nm and length L = 66 nm. (b) The nanoshell has a silica core of 50 nm in diameter and shell thickness of 3.2 nm. (c) The nanocage has a water core with an inner edge length of 50 nm and wall thickness of 6 nm. (Reproduced with permission from Ref 33. Copyright 2006 The Royal Society of Chemistry).

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