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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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High‐resolution light microscopy using luminescent nanoparticles

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Abstract This review presents recent progress in the development of the luminescent nanoparticles for confocal and multiphoton microscopy. Four classes of nanomaterials are discussed: (1) silica‐based nanoparticles doped with fluorescent molecules, (2) gold nanoparticles, (3) semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots/rods), and (4) nanophosphors. Special considerations are given to recently developed imaging nanoprobes, such as (1) organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles doped with two‐photon absorbing fluorophores, which exhibit aggregation‐enhanced fluorescence (AEF), and (2) nanophosphors (ceramic nanoparticles containing luminescent lanthanoid ions). Advantages and disadvantages of every class of nanomaterials and their specific applications are briefly discussed. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2010 2 162–175 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

Confocal images of MiaPaCa (upper row) and COS‐1 (lower row) cells, treated with nontargeted (a, d), and transferrin (b, e) and anti‐claudin‐4‐conjugated (c and f) organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles.

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Photoluminescence image of Panc‐1 cells treated with NIR‐to‐NIR upconverting nanophosphors (UCNPs). (Reproduced with permission from Ref 106. Copyright 2008 ACS).

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Confocal images of the pancreatic cancer cells (Panc‐1) treated with upconverting nanophosphors (UCNPs) (NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+, Gd3+). Left panel shows cells treated with nonbioconjugated nanophosphors and right panel shows cells targeted with nanophosphors conjugated with anti‐claudin‐4. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 112. Copyright 2009 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

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Confocal microscopy images of (a) MiaPaCa cells treated with anti‐claudin‐4‐conjugated InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and (b) KB (human nasopharyngeal epidermal carcinoma cell line) cells treated with anti‐claudin‐4‐conjugated InP/ZnS QDs. A nucleus staining dye, Hoechst 33342, is seen as blue and red shows emission from InP/ZnS QDs.

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Confocal microscopy images of HeLa cell labeled with transferrin‐conjugated CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum rods. The luminescence (a) and transmission (b) images are shown.

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Two‐photon‐excited luminescence image of live pancreatic cancer cells targeted with CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). Autofluorescence from the cells is shown as green pseudocolor and QDs are shown as red.

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Pseudocolor donor (green)‐acceptor (red) channel‐merged two‐photon fluorescence images of HeLa cells treated with NP‐AD for 1 h, before (left panel) and after (central panel) acceptor bleaching in the areas indicated by boxes. Right panel shows transmission image of cells. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 42. Copyright 2007 ACS).

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Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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