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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Heparin‐based nanoparticles

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Abstract The combination of nanoparticles and biological molecules is of intense interest because of the synergistic properties offered by such newly synthesized composites. Heparin (HP), conjugated to nanomaterials, has recently been investigated for its chemical and biological properties. HP has a number of biological activities that can be enhanced when composited with nanoparticles. In addition, HP improves the biocompatibility of nanoparticles improving their performance in various biological applications. A variety of recent research combines HP and nanomaterials for a myriad of applications. HP has been conjugated to the surface of the nanoparticles, such as magnetic and metallic nanoparticles, or biodegradable and nondegradable synthetic polymers. HP has also been incorporated into the nanoparticles. There are numerous possibilities for material composites and chemistries that incorporate HP. This opens the door for novel applications ranging from improving anticoagulant activity, for anticancer and antitumor therapy, to tissue engineering and biosensors. This review examines the different possibilities of HP‐based nanoparticle composites and their medicinal or biological applications. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2010 2 77–87 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Cardiovascular Disease

Structure of heparin (HP). (a) Structure of HP major and minor variable sequences (X = sulfo or H, Y = sulfo, Ac, or H). (b) HP pentasaccharide Antithrombin III (ATIII) binding sequence. The red highlighted sulfo group at the C‐3 position of the center glucosamine residue is critical for the interaction with ATIII.

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Transmission electron microscopy images of 2,6‐diaminopyridine heparin (a) gold nanoparticles at 125, 000× magnification and (b) silver nanoparticles at 160, 000× magnification.

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Schematic of neo‐proteoglycan. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes are coated with poly(ethyleneimmine), where CNBr‐activated heparin can interact with the exposed amine groups.

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Schematic cutaway of layer‐by‐layer assembly of poly(lactic‐co‐glycolic acid) microspheres covered with heparin poly(L‐lysine) nanoparticles. This assembly relies on the electrostatic interaction of each layer.

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Schematic of self‐assembled heparin–deoxycholic acid (HP–DOCA) nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) for cancer treatment. HP and the DOCA compound is an amphiphile that will form micelles that can encapsulate the hydrophobic DOX chemotherapeutic drug.

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Schematic cutaway of heparinized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles. Heparin is conjugated to the outer Fe3O4 shell through interaction with the HMDI spacer arm, which is conjugated to either the Fe3O4 shell or the aminotrimethoxysilane longer spacer.

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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Cardiovascular Disease

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