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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanoelectrodes for biological measurements

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Abstract Nanoelectrodes are electrodes with a critical dimension in the range of one to hundreds of nanometers and include individual electrodes, nanoelectrode ensembles, and arrays. Metallic nanowires, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires have been employed to fabricate nanoelectrodes and platforms. In this review, applications of single electrodes, nanoelectrode arrays, and ensembles are briefly evaluated, with emphasis on biological analysis. Nanoelectrodes offer great advantages in numerous areas of biological investigations, particularly in single cells studies, fabrication of microchips, design of coordinated biosensors, and in addressable patterned electrodes. Consequently, nanoelectrodes have immense potential in the development of efficient, specific, sensitive, and intelligent sensors. In conjunction with the rapidly evolving, cost‐effective fabrication and materials development approaches, these sensors can be used as direct, point‐of‐care clinical devices, enabling more personalized medical care. The development and application of nanodevices in biology and medicine will have enormous implications for society and human health. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2010 2 176–188 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

SEM images of a CFNE (a) and tip of a CFNE (b).22.

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Optical image and schematic diagram illustrating intracellular pH measurements performed in a single human fat cell using ZnO nanorods as a working electrode with a Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode.65.

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Formation of the conducting nanowires upon self‐assembling of the Au‐coated magnetic nanoparticles along the magnetic field lines and their use as a nanostructured electrode for electrochemical oxidation of derrocenemonocarboxylic acid coupled with the glucose oxidation biocatalyzed by GOx.61.

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Site‐addressable assembly of multiple enzymes to specific regions of a CNT NEA. (a) The enzyme–ssDNA assembly. (b) Parallel hybridization of the five enzymes to distinct regions of a CNT NEA modified with differing ssDNA ‘addresses’. Electrocatalytic currents originating from the enzymes indicate the corresponding substrate concentrations.55.

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(a) Model of the Npx–peptide bioassembly. (b) Fabrication process of CNT NEA–Npx bioassembly electrode. (c) SEM image of Npx bioassembly immobilized on tips of CNT electrode.10, 34.

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(a) Overall microchannel configuration of the microchip embedded with gold NEE. (b) Amplified gold NEE working electrode and gold NEE decoupler electrodes.39.

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Amperometric monitoring of dopamine release from PC12 single cells by a microchip integrated with CFNE. (a) Layout of the chip. (b) Configuration of electrophoresis system with an integrated electrochemical detector: (1) sample reservoir; (2) buffer reservoir; (3) sample waste reservoir; (4) separation channel; (5) detection cell; (6) working electrode; (7) reference electrode; and (8) epoxy. (c) Enlarged view of the outlet of separation channel. (d) Photographs of actual nanoelectrode‐cell arrangement. (e) Results from a CFNE. The current spikes are magnified in the inset.21, 22.

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SEM images of 2D gold NEE (a), 3D gold NEE (b), and CNT NEA (c).36, 55.

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Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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