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Hallmarks of cancer and AU‐rich elements

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Post‐transcriptional control of gene expression is aberrant in cancer cells. Sustained stabilization and enhanced translation of specific mRNAs are features of tumor cells. AU‐rich elements (AREs), cis‐acting mRNA decay determinants, play a major role in the posttranscriptional regulation of many genes involved in cancer processes. This review discusses the role of aberrant ARE‐mediated posttranscriptional processes in each of the hallmarks of cancer, including sustained cellular growth, resistance to apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1368. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1368 This article is categorized under: RNA Turnover and Surveillance > Regulation of RNA Stability RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease
ARE gene product interactome. Gene products coded by ARE–mRNAs that participate in the hallmarks of cancer and their interactions are shown as an interactive map. Pathway Studio program (Elsevier) was used to create the interacting map. Because genes participating in cancer hallmarks overlap, they were not connected to the individual hallmarks.
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Restoring the perturbed ARE‐mediated pathway by a TTP activator. A graphical representation of how the aberrant TTP–HuR axis can be normalized by a TTP activator, which leads to a reduction of cancer ARE–mRNAs that participate in the hallmarks of cancer. The right panel shows confocal microscopy images for monitoring the changes in the expression levels of TTP and HuR, along with actin cytoskeleton visualization in normal and cancer cells. Further details are found under the various sections of this review. The images on the right were adopted from our previous work and reproduced from the Journal of Pathology by permission of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
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TTP repression in cancer. The various causes that lead to TTP repression in cancer cells: The details are found in Box and throughout the review.
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RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease
RNA Turnover and Surveillance > Regulation of RNA Stability

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