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Writing a wrong: Coupled RNA polymerase II transcription and RNA quality control

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Processing and maturation of precursor RNA species is coupled to RNA polymerase II transcription. Co‐transcriptional RNA processing helps to ensure efficient and proper capping, splicing, and 3′ end processing of different RNA species to help ensure quality control of the transcriptome. Many improperly processed transcripts are not exported from the nucleus, are restricted to the site of transcription, and are in some cases degraded, which helps to limit any possibility of aberrant RNA causing harm to cellular health. These critical quality control pathways are regulated by the highly dynamic protein–protein interaction network at the site of transcription. Recent work has further revealed the extent to which the processes of transcription and RNA processing and quality control are integrated, and how critically their coupling relies upon the dynamic protein interactions that take place co‐transcriptionally. This review focuses specifically on the intricate balance between 3′ end processing and RNA decay during transcription termination. This article is categorized under: RNA Turnover and Surveillance > Turnover/Surveillance Mechanisms RNA Processing > 3' End Processing RNA Processing > Splicing Mechanisms RNA Processing > Capping and 5' End Modifications
RNA processing and degradation: Processing and degradation factors are recruited to the site of transcription. Shown are two polymerases moving in opposite directions demonstrating each of the major RNA processing pathways (as described in the key)
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Nrd1‐Nab3‐Sen1 termination: Nrd1 is recruited to the site of transcription by Ser5 phosphorylated CTD. Nab3 and Nrd1 form a heterodimer and bind to RNA via their RNA recognition motif domains. Nab3 and Nrd1 are thought to be able to recruit Sen1, which then catches RNAPII and unwinds the DNA/RNA hybrid (also known as R‐loop). TRAMP unwinds RNA and its subunit Trf4 polyadenylates the 3′ end of RNA for processing and/or degradation. The exosome complex then degrades the RNA 3′–5′
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Cleavage and polyadenylation: Cap binding complex (CBC) binds 5′ guanosine cap. Cleavage factor 1A (CF1A) is recruited to Ser2 phosphorylated CTD of RNAPII. Cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF) is recruited and cleaves RNA after polyadenylation signal. Poly(A) polymerase polyadenylates 3′ end of RNA following cleavage. Xrn2 degrades 5′ end of uncapped RNA and removes RNAPII from the DNA template
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Browse by Topic

RNA Processing > Capping and 5′ End Modifications
RNA Processing > Splicing Mechanisms
RNA Processing > 3′ End Processing
RNA Turnover and Surveillance > Turnover/Surveillance Mechanisms

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