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mRNA 3′ end formation in plants: Novel connections to growth, development and environmental responses

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Abstract 3′ end processing and mRNA polyadenylation is a vital aspect of gene expression in eukaryotes, and also a step at which expression may be regulated. A spate of recent research in plants links different subunits of the polyadenylation complex with growth and development. These reports provide insight into mechanisms by which APA may be regulated, and perhaps into mechanisms by which pre‐mRNAs are processed and polyadenylated. In this review, several of these recent reports are discussed, with the purpose of highlighting novel features of mRNA 3′ end formation in plants and also developing broad themes that connect APA with plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. This article is categorized under: RNA Processing > 3′ End Processing RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Development
Overview of the mammalian polyadenylation machinery, highlighting subunits discussed in this review. Subunits in this depiction are not drawn to scale, and are shown relative to the parts of the pre‐mRNA (red line) with which they may associate. “AAUAAA”—canonical poly(A) signal; green lightning bolt—processing site. For the sake of simplicity, and because they are not discussed in this review, symplekin and the nuclear poly(A) binding protein are not shown. Subunits that are discussed in the review are highlighted as black figures with white lettering
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Model depicting a general mechanism, whereby signaling inputs (redox, calcium/calmodulin, or phosphorylation) inhibit the activities of strategic poly(A) complex subunits, eliciting changes in poly(A) status (APA or poly(A) length) and subsequent molecular and physiological outcomes. The arrangement of the five subunits depicted here conveys results indicating protein–protein interactions, and is meant to suggest possible higher‐order interactions and cooperation between subunits and signaling pathways
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Locations of mutations in the Arabidopsis FIP1, PAPS, and CSTF77/64 genes. Locations of T‐DNA insertions are noted with yellow (for 5′‐UTR localized) and blue (for intron or coding region‐localized) triangles, small deletions or insertions with green triangles (inverted for deletions), and point mutations with red asterisks. The consequences of point mutations are noted beneath the representation of the genes (blue arrows) and mRNAs (in green). The position of the alternate poly(A) site in the FIP1 gene is shown with a blue arrow. The locations of mutations are approximate, and show the general positions in ways that convey the consequences of the changes
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Depiction of the Arabidopsis CPSF30 gene, showing the intron/exon structure (“gDNA”), compositions of the CPSF30‐S and CPSF30‐L proteins, and locations of the T‐DNA in the oxt6 mutant and the point mutation in the cpsf30‐2 mutant. The T‐DNA insertion is noted a blue triangle, and the point mutation with red asterisks. The consequence of the point mutations is noted beneath the representation of the gene. The position of the alternate poly(A) site is shown with a blue arrow beneath. The locations of mutations are approximate, and show the general positions in ways that convey the consequences of the changes
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RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Development
RNA Processing > 3′ End Processing

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