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Polyadenylation and beyond: emerging roles for noncanonical poly(A) polymerases

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Abstract The addition of nontemplated nucleotides, particularly adenylyl and uridylyl residues, to the 3′ ends of RNA substrates has been the focus of much attention in recent years, and these studies have generated some intriguing surprises. In addition to the well‐known canonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that polyadenylates mRNAs prior to export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, a separate class of noncanonical poly(A) polymerases has emerged over the past decade. Studies on various organisms have led to the realization that these noncanonical PAPs, which are conserved from yeast to mammals, play crucial and diverse roles in the regulation of gene expression. Here we review the current knowledge of these enzymes, with an emphasis on the human proteins, and highlight recent discoveries that have implications far beyond the understanding of RNA metabolism itself. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is categorized under: RNA Processing > 3' End Processing RNA Processing > Processing of Small RNAs RNA Turnover and Surveillance > Turnover/Surveillance Mechanisms RNA Turnover and Surveillance > Regulation of RNA Stability

The domain architecture of human ncPAPs. The features highlighted are catalytic domain (red), PAP‐associated domain (blue), RNA recognition motif (yellow), zinc finger CCHC (dark green), and C2H2 (light green). The size (in amino acids) of each protein is indicated.

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RNA Processing > Processing of Small RNAs
RNA Turnover and Surveillance > Turnover/Surveillance Mechanisms
RNA Turnover and Surveillance > Regulation of RNA Stability
RNA Processing > 3′ End Processing

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