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WIREs Syst Biol Med
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Neural stem and progenitor cells in health and disease

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Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) have the potential to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and/or oligodendrocytes. Because these cells can be expanded in culture, they represent a vast source of neural cells. With the recent discovery that patient fibroblasts can be reprogrammed directly into induced NSPCs, the regulation of NSPC fate and function, in the context of cell‐based disease models and patient‐specific cell‐replacement therapies, warrants review. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2013, 5:701–715. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1239 This article is categorized under: Developmental Biology > Lineages Biological Mechanisms > Regulatory Biology Developmental Biology > Stem Cell Biology and Regeneration

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Successful cell transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (ESC)‐derived dopaminergic neurons into a monkey model of Parkinson's disease (PD) (MPTP‐lesioned rhesus monkeys). (a) Representative graft 1 month after transplantation, showing expression of the dopaminergic neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), with surrounding TH+ fibers (arrows). (b) Co‐expression of human specific cytoplasm marker SC‐121 (red) and TH (green) in graft. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 121 Copyright 2011 Nature).
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Paradigm of a high‐throughput screen for small molecules capable of neural protection of embryonic stem cell (ESC)‐derived motor neurons and astrocytes in the presence of activated microglia. After screening more than 10,000 small molecules, the 0.3% hit rate included compounds acting in the activation of the Nrf2 pathway in microglia and astrocytes, direct protection of neurons from nitric‐oxide‐induced degeneration and inhibition of nitric oxide production by microglia. (Reprinted with permission from Ref ).
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Biological Mechanisms > Regulatory Biology
Developmental Biology > Lineages
Developmental Biology > Stem Cell Biology and Regeneration

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