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WIREs Syst Biol Med
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Cardiac function and disease: emerging role of small ubiquitin‐related modifier

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Abstract Small ubiquitin‐related modifiers, or SUMOs, have emerged as versatile regulators of many biological functions that do so by covalent attachment to a variety of substrates via enzymatic reactions. SUMO conjugation has also been shown to be involved in a number of human pathogenic processes. More recent advances in the SUMO field have indicated a potential role for SUMO conjugation pathway in cardiogenesis. This advanced review will describe the basic features of the SUMO conjugation pathway and will summarize the most recent studies implicating the influence of the sumoylation pathway in cardiac function under both physiological and pathological conditions. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2011 3 446–457 DOI: 10.1002/wsbm.130 This article is categorized under: Developmental Biology > Developmental Processes in Health and Disease

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Illustration of small ubiquitin‐related modifier (SUMO) conjugation pathway. E1, SAE1/SAE2; E2, Ubc9; E3, protein inhibitors of activated STAT (PIAS), etc. (see text or Figure 2 for details). xxxxx, C‐terminal extension after diglycine motif.

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The functional consequences after sumoylation. Small ubiquitin‐related modifier (SUMO) modification may result in the following consequences: changes in subcellular localization, alteration of protein–DNA binding, alteration of protein–protein interaction, stabilization, and promoting proteasomal degradation. See text for details.

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Alignment of amino acid sequences of human small ubiquitin‐related modifier (SUMO) isoforms. The vertical red line indicates the location of cleavage in SUMO‐1, ‐2 and ‐3 by SENPs to expose di‐glycine residues for conjugation. The native SUMO‐4 cannot be cleaved due to the presence of pro‐90 (see text for details).

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