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Multiscale systems integration in the eye

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Abstract A series of research topics on the eye is reviewed with the aim of illustrating how integrative and systems‐biological approaches can be used to understand complex properties and functions of ocular tissues. Emphasis is placed on the diversity of physiological systems represented in the eye, and the variety of approaches required to analyze those systems, both empirically and theoretically. Modeling and empirical studies reviewed focus mainly on problems that the eye presents, in the broad areas of biomechanics and fluid dynamics from the molecular to the whole‐organ scale. Attention is given to the relevance of these studies in human disease and the current potential for development of medical therapies based upon a biophysical, integrative modeling approach. The creation of a multiscale hierarchy of numerical models of the eye is proposed as an important and unifying aim of integrative eye research. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This article is categorized under: Analytical and Computational Methods > Analytical Methods Physiology > Mammalian Physiology in Health and Disease Models of Systems Properties and Processes > Organ, Tissue, and Physiological Models

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The IUPS Physiome Project. Computational models of human physiological systems are being developed in integrated hierarchies spanning many orders of magnitude in space and time. Dedicated programming markup languages are being developed for code modularity and integration across scales, for example, CellML, TissueML, etc. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 17. Copyright 2002 Springer).

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A finite element model of the eye, part of the IUPS Physiome Project. Data clouds extracted from image data in the eye literature (top) form a quantitative basis for continuum modeling, surface rendering, and visualization (bottom) of ocular structures, mechanics, and function on a range of spatiotemporal scales.

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Convection pattern of aqueous humor in the anterior chamber. Arrows indicate the calculated velocities of fluid circulation seen in profile at the mid‐peripheral cornea. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 77. Copyright 2008 Elsevier).

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Equivalent circuit for the three major rod pathways in the mammalian retina. Pathway 1 is initiated by the rod cell (R) and transduction follows to a bipolar cell (BC), then glycinergic amacrine cell (AC), and then ganglion cell (GC). Pathway 2 follows direct rod‐to‐off‐BC signaling. Pathway 3 is initiated by gap junction channels (resistor symbols), and signaling is mediated through cone cell (C) pedicles. The three pathways are invoked at different brightness levels. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 40. Copyright 2008 Elsevier).

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Biomechanical model of the e–e for virtually augmented surgery. A haptic interface enables a surgeon to simulate, or perform, remote surgery on the eye with real‐time finite element tissue mechanics feedback. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 35. Copyright 1994 Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.).

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Microcirculation in the ocular lens. Empirical measurements of ion currents, cell electrophysiological parameters, and expression patterns of membrane ion pumps and channels across the lens support a biophysical model of endogenous avascular circulation in the lens (arrows). (Reprinted with permission from Ref 28. Copyright 1997 American Physiological Society).

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Physiology > Mammalian Physiology in Health and Disease
Models of Systems Properties and Processes > Organ, Tissue, and Physiological Models
Analytical and Computational Methods > Analytical Methods

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