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T cell responses in lymph nodes

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Abstract Activation of T cells by antigen‐presenting cells (APCs) in lymph nodes (LNs) is a key initiating event in many immune responses. Our understanding of this process has been both improved and complicated in recent years by evidence from techniques such as intravital microscopy that has revealed new levels of dynamism in the interaction of T cells and APCs. In particular, the complex motility of T cells within LNs, and their serial interactions with many APCs, imply that earlier static models of T cell activation need to be updated. Here we review the first attempts to model T cell interactions with APCs in LNs that incorporate simulations of T cell motility, based on experimental observations. We show that lattice‐based modeling approaches are the dominant trend in these models, and then chart a possible course for development of these models toward spatially‐resolved models of immune responses within LNs. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This article is categorized under: Models of Systems Properties and Processes > Cellular Models Physiology > Mammalian Physiology in Health and Disease Models of Systems Properties and Processes > Organ, Tissue, and Physiological Models

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Schematic of lymphoid lobule with deep cortical unit (DCU) and three B cell follicles. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 1. Copyright 2006 SAGE Publications).

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Simulated T cell trajectories displaced to a common starting point. Cell paths were generated in 3D, then projected onto 2D. The cells were moving on a packed lattice, with a mean speed of 16 µm/min and a motility coefficient of 64 µm2/ min.

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Physiology > Mammalian Physiology in Health and Disease
Models of Systems Properties and Processes > Cellular Models
Models of Systems Properties and Processes > Organ, Tissue, and Physiological Models

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