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Modeling of blood flow in arterial trees

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Abstract Advances in computational methods and medical imaging techniques have enabled accurate simulations of subject‐specific blood flows at the level of individual blood cell and in complex arterial networks. While in the past, we were limited to simulations with one arterial bifurcation, the current state‐of‐the‐art is simulations of arterial networks consisting of hundreds of arteries. In this paper, we review the advances in methods for vascular flow simulations in large arterial trees. We discuss alternative approaches and validity of various assumptions often made to simplify the modeling. To highlight the similarities and discrepancies of data computed with different models, computationally intensive three‐dimensional (3D) and inexpensive one‐dimensional (1D) flow simulations in very large arterial networks are employed. Finally, we discuss the possibilities, challenges, and limitations of the computational methods for predicting outcomes of therapeutic interventions for individual patients. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This article is categorized under: Analytical and Computational Methods > Computational Methods Models of Systems Properties and Processes > Organ, Tissue, and Physiological Models Translational, Genomic, and Systems Medicine > Translational Medicine

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Unsteady 3D flow simulations in intracranial arterial network: geometrical model and flow patterns. The domain (reconstructed from 3D computed tomography (CT) images, bottom right) consists of 65 arteries and is subdivided into four patches. Arterial segments are colored with respect to instantaneous wall pressure; arrows in the middle patch (Circle of Willis) correspond to velocity vectors. Top left and right—instantaneous streamlines and velocity vectors depicting strong swirling flow. (Adapted from Ref 4).

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Unsteady 1D and 3D flow simulations in an intracranial network: geometry and flow rates at posterior cerebral (PC) and anterior cerebral (ACA) arteries: red (dash)—FW‐1D model with elasticity parameters adapted from Refs 49–51; green (dash‐dot)—FW‐1D model with stiffened walls; blue (solid)—RW‐3D model.

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Flow simulation in intracranial arterial network with two internal carotid artery aneurysms: wall shear stress (WSS). Left—geometry; center—contour plot of WSS magnitude and WSS vectors corresponding to t/T = 3.28, and volumetric flow rate, the red dot marks t/T = 3.28; right—time traces of the magnitude and direction changes (with respect to the mean) of WSS at points ‘L’ and ‘M’.

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Flow simulation in an intracranial network with aneurysm. The domain is reconstructed from magnetic resonance images; colors specify different patches of the domain. The XY plots show the velocity continuity in the neighborhood of overlapping regions; the data were extracted along the lines marked by ‘1,2,3’.

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Translational, Genomic, and Systems Medicine > Translational Medicine
Analytical and Computational Methods > Computational Methods
Models of Systems Properties and Processes > Organ, Tissue, and Physiological Models

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