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WIREs RNA
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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews:
WIREs RNA
Volume 12 Issue 3 (May 2021)
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Cover Image
Published Online: Apr 02 2021
DOI: 10.1002/wrna.1655
The cover image is based on the Advanced Review microRNA strand selection: Unwinding the rules by Jeffrey C. Medley et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/wrna.1627.
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Overview

One locus with two roles: microRNA‐independent functions of microRNA‐host‐gene locus‐encoded long noncoding RNAs
Published Online: Sep 17 2020
DOI: 10.1002/wrna.1625
Several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are produced from genomic loci that also harbor microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs). Increasing evidence suggests that many miRNA‐host‐gene‐derived lncRNAs (lnc‐MIRHGs) have miRNA‐independent roles, hence endowing such genomic loci with dual functions.
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Advanced Reviews

Role of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of addiction
Published Online: Dec 17 2020
DOI: 10.1002/wrna.1637
Drugs of abuse impact the pathophysiology of the brain via intercellular and intracellular alterations of microRNAs. The primary glial cells of the brain, astrocytes and microglia, are responsible for inducing the majority of inflammatory cytokines that impact neurons and potentiate addiction and withdrawal symptoms. Neurons are key in forming long‐term and short‐term memories as well as conditioning through synaptic plasticity and synapto‐dendritic injury. These changes influence the majority of effects that cause the transition from recreational use to substance abuse.
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Mitochondrial RNA quality control in trypanosomes
Published Online: Dec 16 2020
DOI: 10.1002/wrna.1638
Pentatricopeptide repeat RNA binding proteins control mitochondrial gene expression in trypanosomes.
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MicroRNA‐99 family in cancer and immunity
Published Online: Nov 23 2020
DOI: 10.1002/wrna.1635
MicroRNA‐99 family comprising miR‐99a, miR‐99b and miR‐100 occupy intronic locations within lncRNA genes in humans. Regulation of their expression is at transcriptional and post‐transcriptional levels. These miRs play important roles in cancer and immunity and a detailed understanding of their functional roles might help in the development of novel miR‐99‐based therapeutics for the treatment of human cancer and immune‐related diseases.
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Regulation of ribosomal protein genes: An ordered anarchy
Published Online: Oct 10 2020
DOI: 10.1002/wrna.1632
Global circuit of ribosome synthesis.
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microRNA strand selection: Unwinding the rules
Published Online: Sep 20 2020
DOI: 10.1002/wrna.1627
Summary of miRNA strand selection and regulatory mechanisms. Three major points of regulation for miRNA strand selection (1) altered miRNA processing by the Microprocessor complex (not shown) or Dicer, (2) remodeling of the miRNA duplex by nontemplated RNA modifications such as uridylation or A‐to‐I editing, and (3) changes in the strand preference of Argonaute. Once presented with a miRNA duplex, Argonaute makes a binary choice to load one miRNA strand and discard the other strand from miRISC. Alternate Argonaute programming leads to shifts in the target profile of miRISC based on the seed sequence of the loaded strand and is sometimes associated with human diseases.
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Control of translation by eukaryotic mRNA transcript leaders—Insights from high‐throughput assays and computational modeling
Published Online: Aug 31 2020
DOI: 10.1002/wrna.1623
The translation of mRNA to protein is highly regulated in eukaryotes. Protein synthesis is controlled primarily at the initiation phase, by cis‐acting sequences in mRNA transcript leaders and corresponding trans‐acting factors. In this review, we summarize the roles of transcript leaders in eukaryotic translational control, emphasizing recent findings made using high‐throughput approaches to identify cis‐ and trans‐acting regulators of translation, test their functions using massively parallel reporter assays, and model translational regulation using machine learning. The synthesis of these data‐driven approaches has led to new insights in translational control.
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Diverse functions of deadenylases in DNA damage response and genomic integrity
Published Online: Aug 13 2020
DOI: 10.1002/wrna.1621
Deadenylases modulate the biogenesis of telomeric or transposon transcripts, sense, and respond to DNA lesions. Mutual feedback between deadenylases and various signaling pathways dynamically adjusts the levels of DNA damage sensors and effectors.
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